International Economic Research Paper Topics

Note: These items are listed here only for ease of access. I make no guarantee of their quality. They may or may not contain solid economic analysis or valid policy conclusions.

Africa Trade:

    Schaefer, Brett D. and Gerald P. O'Driscoll, Jr., "Congress Should Promote Trade in Africa and the Caribbean," Executive Memorandum No. 660, The Heritage Foundation, March 7, 2000. The Congress should pass bills to liberalize trade with Africa and the Car ibbean since these regions will reap large economic benefits and the U.S. will gain stronger political ties. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Agricultural Trade:
    Griswold, Daniel T. "Bringing Economic Sanity to Agricultural Trade," Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, December 2, 1999. The developed countries should ease trade protections on agricultural products as this will improve the market for American f arm exports abroad and help consumers domestically. Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML
Anti-Dumping
    Lindsey, Brink and Daniel J. Ikenson. "Coming Home to Roost Proliferating Antidumping Laws and the Growing Threat to U.S. Exports," Cato Trade Policy Analysis No. 14, July 30, 2001, executive summary with link to 36 page paper. Notes the increasing use of anti-dumping laws by other countries and the threat to U.S. exports. Length: 1 page. Level: general. Online-HTML

    Prusa, Thomas. "On the Spread and Impact of Antidumping," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2000, summary of a paper. Antidumping has been enthusiastically embraced in recent years by developing countries and can perhaps be explained as retaliatory measures against leading industrial nations. However, there are significant costs to using AD. Once AD has been approved for one firm it becomes harder to restrain it's use in other sectors. In addition the overall value of trade declines. Len gth: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

APEC:
    Flamm, Kenneth and Edward Lincoln, "Time to Reinvent APEC," Brookings Policy Brief No. 26, Nov 97. Explains what APEC is (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) and says that it needs to be reformed in order to achieve its goal of liberalizing trade. Online-HTML
Argentina:
    Krugman, Paul. "Don't Laugh at me ... Argentina," Slate, July 1999. Argentina's decision to maintain its currency board has been questioned as a panacea to the country's economic problems. As Brazilian devaluation showed, sometimes a weaker exchang e rate can be good for economic growth. Length: 5 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Asia
    Bergsten, C. Fred. "The New Asian Challenge," Working Paper 00-4, Institute for International Economics, March 2000. The Asian countries are rapidly emerging as the third major pole of the world economy in addition to Europe and the U.S. This brings with it significant questions of regional indentity as the Asian countries grapple with the idea of pan-Asian financial institutions and trade policies. Length: 17 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML
Asian Crisis
    Brown, Stephen, et al. "Did Foreign Investors Cause Asian Market Problem?" Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1998, summary of two papers. There is limited evidence that foreign investors initiated or exacerbated the Asian crisis. In th e case of hedge-funds, inadequate data on holdings prevents a definitive conclusion, but the fact that several major funds simply broke even during the crisis indicates that they were not manipulating the currency markets to their advantage. An analysis o f the South Korean asset market reveals that foreign investors do indeed behave in ways that could be destabilizing, but close examination of the data does not find a strong correlation between foreign selling and falling stock prices. Length: 1 page. Lev el: General. Online-HTML

    Kho, Bong-Chan and Rene Stulz. "Asian Crisis Hurt Banks Less than Was Thought," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2000, summary of a paper. During the Asian crisis of 1997-98, the Asian banks were not harmed by the currency depreciati ons as much as popularly believed. By analyzing the relationship between banks and stock markets in the Asian countries, it is possible to conclude that the banking sector may not have been over-exposed to currency risk. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "Analytical Afterthoughts on the Asian Crisis," What's New, September 1999. In considering the Asian financial crisis, several policy proposals can be made: temporary capital controls may be helpful at averting a crisis, sterilization will likely not achieve its goals, and taxing or discouraging foreign currency denominated debt might help prevent speculative crises. Length: 8 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "Tiger's Tale," Slate, November 1999. Hedge funds played a disproportionate role in the Asian financial crisis due to their willingness to take on excessive amounts of risk in emerging capital markets. The losses suffered by such fun ds have hopefully encouraged wiser decisions on the part of hedge fund managers in the future. Length: 8 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    McKibbin, Warwick and Will Martin. "The East Asian Crisis: Investigating Causes and Policy Responses", February 1999. Examines various "shocks" to East Asian economies that may have caused the crisis. Length: 62 pages Level: intermediate Online-PDF

    McKibbin, Warwick. "Heresey: Asian Flu Helps U.S." Journal of Commerce, April 3, 1998. Explains why the U.S. GDP may actually rise as a result of the Asian turmoil. Length: 2 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Noland, Marcus, Sherman Robinson, and Zhi Wang. "The Continuing Asian Financial Crisis: Global Adjustment and Trade", Institute for International Economics Working Paper, No. 99-4, March 1999. Analyzes impact of the continuing Asian crisis, highlighting the implications of possible future developments in China and Japan. Yen depreciation would have an adverse effect on the rest of Asia, even if Japanese growth were restored. Length: 19 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    O'Driscoll, Gerald. "New Study Analyzes IMF Policy Failures in Asia", The Heritage Foundation News and Views, April 1, 1999. Claims that by creating an insurance policy to protect investors in the event that risky loans failed, the IMF encouraged risky loans. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Sachs, Jeffrey. "The IMF and the Asian Flu" The American Prospect no. 37 (March-April 1998): 16-21. Discusses how the IMF acted wrongly when dealing with the Asian crisis and how these actions have helped produce a panic throughout East Asia. Also explains what the IMF is and what it does. Level: general Length: 8 pages Online-HTML

    Wolf, Charles Jr. "Asia Gets Back on Its Feet," Digest 1999, No. 4, The Hoover Institution, reprinted from the Los Angeles Times, April 25, 1999. Many of the Asian countries have shown remarkable resiliance in recovering from the 1997-98 financial crisis. The most successful countries have shown an ability to adapt to changing circumstances, and even nations still facing some problems, such as Japan and China, nonetheless exhibit overwhelmingly positive signs of growth. Length: 3 pages. Level: Gen eral. Online-HTML

    Wolf, Charles Jr. "Asia's Dramatic Recovery," Weekly Essays, The Hoover Institution, June 5, 2000. Asia's impressive recovery from the 97-98 financial crisis should not reduce the need for continued sound economic policies which encourage stable investmen t, borrowing and currency practices. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

Asian Miracle:
    Bloom, David and Jeffrey Williamson. "Demographics Linked to Asian Miracle," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 1998, summary of a paper. The economic success of the East Asian countries during the 1970's and 80's can be attributed in part to improvements in the social infrastructure which led to reduced mortality rates and dramatically increased the available work force. However, this increase will soon become a drain on resources as elderly populations reach retirement age. Length: 1 pag e. Level: General. Online-HTML
Bailouts:
    Bordo, Michael and Anna Schwarz. "Past International Rescues Were More Successful than Recent Ones," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 1999, summary of a paper. The recent financial rescues engineered by the IMF have led investors to as sume they will be bailed out for making bad decisions and led emerging market countries to believe that they have an implicit contract with the IMF. This could be remedied if the private capital markets were held primarily responsible for crisis lending, which would be done in smaller amounts than IMF loans and at higher interest rates. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML
Banana War:
    Lukas, Aaron. "Yes, We Sell No Bananas" Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles, December 12, 1998. The U.S. is threatening to make some European exports subject to tariffs in retaliation for the EU's failure to comply with a WTO ruling on banana imports. Author argues that this is the wrong response to the EU, and that it could undermine the world trading system. Length: 2 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML
Beef Hormone Dispute
    Lukas, Aaron. "Brussels sins, cheese lovers do penance," Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, August 2, 1999. The U.S. should not have responded to European restrictions on U.S. imported hormone-treated beef with trade barriers of its own. This only hurts U.S. consumers who will pay more for European imports. The administration should have tried to negotiate compensation that would open European markets to other U.S. goods. Length: 2 pages.Level: General.Online-HTML
Business Cycle Transmission:
    Kraay, Aart and Jaume Ventura. "Product Prices Link Business Cycles among Major Industrialized Countries," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2000, summary of a paper. The authors build a model of how an economic expansion in one coun try would increase the demand for labor not only in that country but in the rest of the OECD as well. Higher demand for labor would lead to higher employment growth and wages, creating an economic expansion in other countries as well. However, their main conclusion is that movements in the relative price of labor- and capital-intensive products do play a part in the process by which economic expansions are transmitted across countries, but it is only a part and not the whole story. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML
Candidates and Trade:
    Lukas, Aaron. "A Presidential Scorecard on Trade," Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, January 16, 2000. The presidential candidates mostly agree on the value of an open trade regime. However, Gore has been trying to play both sides of the fence, ma king promises to organized labor that he will attempt to create "fair trade" with respect to enforcing international labor standards. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Capital Controls:
    Edwards, Sebastian. "Lessons from Latin American Capital Flows," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1998, summary of a paper. Latin American countries have been a laboratory for experimentation with many types of capital controls. In m ost cases, such controls have little impact on controlling overall flows, merely shifting their composition. Chile has had some success with a nominal exchange rate band, while most countries would benefit from stronger banking systems. Length: 2 pages. L evel: General. Online-HTML

    Edwards, Sebastian et al. "Do Controls on Capital Inflows Work?" Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2000, summary of an article by Sebastian Edwards, Jose De Gregorio and Rodrigo Valdes. Capital controls in Chile affected only the co mposition of the flows - shifting more short-term capital into long-term accounts- without changing the overall amount. Other effects included a rise in the cost of capital, minimal effect on the intended depreciation of the currency, and higher costs to domestic firms and small-scale businesses. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Eichengreen, Barry, Michael Mussa, Giovanni Dell'Ariccia, Enrica Detragiache, Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti and Andrew Tweedie. "Liberalizing Capital Movements: Some Analytical Issues," Economic Issues No. 17, IMF, February 1999. Liberalized capital flows ar e inevitable for countries wishing to participate in the global economy. The disruptions caused by such flows are best mitigated through the presence of sequenced liberalization of controls accompanied by sound macro policies, strengthened domestic financ ial systems, and improved transparency. Length: 12 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Faux, Jeff. "Who's Japan Bashing Now?" Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, published in the Idaho Statesman, October 11, 1998. The U.S. government should stop blaming Japan's slow growth for the world's financial problems and do more to limit sp eculative investment flows that damage developing economies. Length: 2 pages.Level: General.Online-HTML

    Hartwell, Christopher A. "The Case against Capital Controls Financial Flows, Crises, and the Flip Side of the Free-Trade Argument," Cato Policy Analysis No. 403, June 14, 2001, abstract, with link to 20-page paper. Lists several reasons why others favor capital controls, and gives his own reasons for opposing them. The abstract does not elaborate on these reasons, which are mainly that controls will be used for protectionist purposes. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, and Erika Wada. "Hazards and Precautions: Tales of International Finance," Working Paper, Institute for International Economics, September 1999. Emerging markets should deal with financial crises first and foremost through reform of domestic financial institutions and liberalization. Yet in the event of a crisis, some controls on capital outflows are acceptable as this may do more to combat contagion. But in the long run, there is no substitute for exchange regime reform, effective s upervision, and banking sector competition to limit financial crisis contagion effects. Length: 33 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-PDF

    Krugman, Paul. "Capital Control Freaks," Slate, September 1999. Whatever one may think of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad politically, his decision to use temporary capital controls may have helped Malaysia weather the Asian financial cri sis better. Length: 7 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "Curfews on Capital: What are the Options?" What's New, October 1998. The debate over how to limit the effects of financial crises has illustrated the importance of some kind of controls to prevent speculative attacks. Proposals aimed at si mply providing a country with some kind of cooling off period do not go far enough in controlling outflows. Instead, some measure of controls such as surrender payments on export earnings may be needed. Length: 2 pages.Level: Intermediate.Online-HTML

    Lee, Jang-Yung. "Sterilizing Capital Inflows," Economic Issues No. 7, IMF, 1997. Although classical sterilization operations can be effective for a time, the use of supplementary measures, including some indirect capital controls, may also be both desirab le and effective. The paper also finds that these measures are usually most effective when imposed in the less distorting form of a tax rather than in outright restrictions on the quantity of capital flows. Moreover, tax revenues raised can be helpful in offsetting some of the costs. Length: 13 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Rodrik, Dani and Andres Velasco. "Crises Increased by Excessive Short-Term Debt," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2000, summary of a paper. The effect of capital controls has been widely debated by economists and can be characterized a s a trade-off between growth and stability. Yet in Chile and Malaysia, use of controls on short-term capital flows did little to impact overall growth. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

Capital Markets:
    La Porta, Rafael, et al. "The Strongest Capital Markets are in Common Law Countries," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 1997, summary of papers by Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez de Silanes, Andrei Shleifer and Robert Vishny. Countries that have based their legal systems on English common law have vastly more developed capital markets than those countries based on the French Napoleonic Code. This is based on the stronger investor protections and legal traditions in those countries follo wing the English system. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML
Capital Mobility:
    Taylor, Alan M. "Capital Markets are Less Integrated Today than 100 Years Ago," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 1997, summary of paper. Close examination of capital flows as a percent of national income and data on domestic saving and investment reveals that international capital flows have not reached the level they attained prior to World War I. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online_HTML
Chile Trade Policy:
    Pinera, Jose and Aaron Lukas. "Chile Takes a Bold Step Toward Freer Trade" Wall Street Journal, January 15, 1999. Discusses how Chile's rapidly shrinking import tariffs and system of private retirement accounts provide it with a secure future as a free-trade nation. Length: 3 pages Level: general Online-HTML
China
    Hu, Zuliu and Mohsin S. Khan. "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" Economic Issues No. 8, IMF, 1997. Since China instituted economic reforms in 1978, increases in worker productivity have been the driving force behind impressive growth rates. These reforms hav e largely consisted of profit incentives for rural enterprises and small, private businesses, which have enabled China to channel agricultural workers into more productive ventures. Length: 6 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Thompson, Fred. "Balancing Trade and Security in the 21st Century," Lecture No. 656, The Heritage Foundation, March 17, 2000. The United States has been too lenient with respect to the security threat posed by China. A balance should be achieved between p romotion of trade and penalties for Chinese nuclear proliferation. Length: 8 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Zhang, Jialin. "An Assessment of Chinese Thinking on Trade Liberalization," Essays in Public Policy, The Hoover Institution, March 1997. China is recognizing the importance of open domestic markets and is working to reduce tariffs, attract foreign direct investment and acquire new technologies. China should not be reprimanded for not moving fast enough; rather, it should be recognized that countries develop at different rates. Length: 17 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

China and PNTR:
    Bergsten, C. Fred. "The Next Trade Policy Battle," Policy Brief 00-1, Institute for International Economics, January 2000. China should be granted Permanent Normal Trade Relations since a failure to do so will signal to the rest of the world that anti-glo balization forces are dominating U.S. economic policy. This would set back the progress China has been making towards democratic reforms, shut off a large potential export market for U.S. firms, and hurt U.S. global leadership ability. Length: 5 pages.Lev el: General.Online-HTML

    Dorn, James. "Advancing Human Rights in China," Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, July 10, 1999. Granting China normal trade status would help promote legal reforms such as greater recognition of private ownership and stronger property rights.Leng th: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Faux, Jeff. "The China trade debate," Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, published in The American Prospect, May 18, 2000. China should not be given PNTR status because it would reduce the chance of winning any labor or environmental protection s in future trade deals, it will increase the U.S.'s already large trade deficit with China, and it may not lead to an increase in democratic reforms in China. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Faux, Jeff. "Problems in China trade deal require additional protections," Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, published in The Detroit News, May 10, 2000. The proposed trade pact to grant China permanent normal trade relations is unacceptable d ue to the fact that there is no protection for labor or envronmental standards attached. Instead, the treaty contains elaborate provisions for insuring investors against any financial loss. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Griswold, Dan, Ned Graham, Robert Knapp & Nicholas Lardy. "Trade and the Transformation of China: The Case for Normal Trade Relations," Trade Briefing Paper No. 5, The Cato Institute, July 19, 1999. The Congress should vote to make normal trade relations with China permanent and the U.S. should drop demands for continued trade protectionist policies against Chinese exports. Length: 12 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Groombridge, Mark A. "China's Long March to a Market Economy: The Case for Permanent Normal Trade Relations with the People's Republic of China," Trade Policy Analysis No. 10, The Cato Institute, April 24, 2000. China should be granted PNTR by the U.S. si nce this will boost the reform movement in China and open markets for U.S. businesses. Furthermore, China will be subject to the WTO dispute resolution mechanism which will protect U.S. interests better than unilateral sanctions. Length: 21 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Hufbauer, Gary Clyde and Daniel H. Rosen. "American Access to China's Market: The Congressional Vote on PNTR," Policy Brief 00-3, Institute for International Economics, April 2000. PNTR for China is a good idea since the United States stands to gain a gre at deal while losing very little. Conversely, the costs of not approving PNTR include continued trade battles with China, no access to the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, no heightened safeguard protection against Chinese imports, and higher barriers to Chinese markets for American goods and services. This is especially damaging when considered in relation to Japanese and European firms which will enjoy significant competitive advantages by virtue of normal trade relations with China. Length: 25 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Lardy, Nicholas R. "China Trade Approval Would Aid U.S.," Opinion Piece, The Brookings Institute, published in Newsday, May 9, 2000. Granting China permanent normal trade relations would benefit both the U.S. business sector and efforts to promote democracy in China. Length: 2 pages.Level: General.Online-HTML

    Lardy, Nicholas R. "Permanent Normal Trade Relations for China," Policy Brief #58, The Brookings Institute, May 2000. China should be granted permanent normal trade relations by the U.S. Congress. This will open up opportunities for U.S. firms and show support for the Chinese government which has been making efforts to liberalize. Length: 6 pages.Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Prestowitz, Clyde. "A Deal Even Trade Hawks Can Love," U.S. Trade Law Op-Ed, Economic Strategy Institute, published in The Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2000. The U.S. should extend Permanent Normal Trade Relations to China since this will equalize trade relations between the two nations and, under WTO law, require China to remove many protectionist measures against U.S. imports. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Scott, Robert E. "China PNTR: a lose-lose deal," Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, published in The Charleston Sunday Gazette, May 14, 2000. Granting China Permanent Normal Trade Relations would result in more manufacturing job losses in both the U.S. and China. By eliminating the annual review of China's trade status, the U.S. will be losing the last remaining measure of leverage it has to influence China's human rights protection. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Waldron, Arthur. "On Whether the United States Should Grant Permanent Normal Trade Relations to the People's Republic of China," Testimony, American Enterprise Institute, presented April 11, 2000. In order for the PRC to gain PNTR, the U.S. government should insist on a more moderate position from China with respect to the use of force and ratification of the major human rights conventions. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Yates, Stephen J. and Larry M. Wortzel. "How Trade with China Benefits Americans," Backgrounder, The Heritage Institute, May 5, 2000. The United States should grant permanent normal trade status to China in order to promote China's accession to the WTO, i mprove the rule of law in China, and facilitate dialogue with Taiwan. Length: 11 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

China and the WTO:
    Bandow, Doug. "Trade with China: Business Profits or Human Rights?" Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, May 5, 2000. Trade with China would promote political decentralization and private property rights in that country. It is mistaken to think that free trade with China would hurt the U.S. since American firms are far more productive than their Chinese counterparts. Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Barfield, Claude E. and Mark A Groombridge. "Two Sides to China's Entry into the WTO," American Enterprise Institute - On the Issues, January 2000. This article says that Chinese entry to the WTO, and the provisions upon which it is contingent, hold a great deal of promise. There are certain things about it, however, that could be a bit better. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Bolton, John R. "China Trying to Politicize the WTO," Articles, American Enterprise Institute, published in the Taipei Times, August 7, 2000. China is insisting that Taiwan be declared part of China as part of the 1992 WTO accession process for the two nations. The United States should resist such efforts on the grounds that the WTO is simply a forum for trade issues and that including politically sensitive issues will open the door for a host of additional controversial topics such as labor and en vironmental standards. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Karatnycky, Adrian. "Trade Alone Won't Do It," Commentary, Freedom House, published in The Washington Post, May 30, 2000. The U.S. should take more steps to promote democracy in China, such as public diplomacy initiatives and increasing the flow of information. This will do more to spread democratic values than simply liberalized trade. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Lardy, Nicholas R., "CHINA and the WTO," Brookings Policy Brief No. 10, Nov 96. Argues the need for getting China into the WTO. Online

    Lardy, Nicholas R. "China's WTO Membership", Brookings Institute Policy Brief, No. 47, April 1999. U.S. policymakers should push for an agreement that would let China into the WTO. An agreement would strengthen the WTO, increase access for U.S. goods in China, and provide China with a fixed timetable for fully opening its markets. Length: 8 pages Level: general Online-HTML

China Human Rights
    Dalpino, Catharin E. "Human Rights in China," Brookings Institute - Policy Brief #50, June 1999. This article states that the dialogue on human rights should include economics as an incentive for China to end violations, considering both the conditions that currently exist there as well as measures that could be taken in the future to either help or hinder the Chinese economy. Length: 6 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
China MFN
    Lukas, Aaron. "Grant China MFN", Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles, July 21, 1998, originally appeared in Journal of Commerce. Congress should not revoke China's most-favored-nation status. Doing so would force American consumers and businesses to pay much higher prices for products from China. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML
China Trade
    Zhang, Jialin. "U.S.-China Trade Issues After the WTO and the PNTR Deal: A Chinese Perspective," Essays in Public Policy, The Hoover Institution, August 2000. The trade imbalance with China is vastly overstated since the real value of U.S. exports to Chin a is understated and no account is made for the fact that most Chinese exports to the U.S. return profits to foreign owned firms. Future trade related disputes, such as export controls and sanctions, would be best settled through negotiations on equal foo ting so that political damage will be minimized. Length: 21 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML
Comparative Advantage
    Shaikh, Anwar M. "Explaining the U.S. Trade Deficit," Policy Notes, The Jerome Levy Economics Institute, 2000/1. Conventional theory makes the curious assumption that, in international trade, movements in the real exchange rate negate cost differences so as to make all countries equally competitive. But quite the contrary, it is absolute cost advantages that determine competition between countries, just as they determine the relative price of two sets of goods within one country. Length: 5 pages. Level: I ntermediate. Online-HTML
Competition Policy in a Global Economy:
    Noland, Marcus. "Competition Policy and FDI: A Solution in Search of a Problem?", Institute for International Economics Working Paper, 99-3. Reviews evidence of the impact of private practices in discouraging inward foreign direct investment. Length: 19 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Sanger, David E. "From Trust Busters to Trust Trusters" New York Times, 12-6-98. Discusses the fact that Washington doesn't seem to be concerned about large mergers anymore. Reasons listed are that the economy is good, politicians don't want to challenge the people with big money, and that we need different things today to compete in a global economy. Length: 3 pages Level: general Online-HTML

Competitiveness
    Wolff, Alan and Charles Wessner. "Competing for Our Futures," Op-Ed Service, National Academies of Science, October 30, 1996. With global competition for development of new technologies fiercly competitive, U.S. government policies should do more to promo te technological research and innovation in the United States in order to ensure future competitive advantage and economic growth. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Corruption
    Alesina, Alberto and Beatrice Weder. "Corrupt Governments Receive no less Foreign Aid," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 1999, summary of a paper. Based on some measures of corruption, the more corrupt a government is, the more aid i t actually receives. According to no measures of corruption used in the paper do less corrupt governments receive more aid. Also, the researchers conclude that there is no evidence that an increase in foreign aid reduces corruption, while private capital flows (FDI) are considerably more discriminating than official aid. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Bhagwati, Jagdish. "Crony Capitalism: Rent-creating versus Profit-Sharing Corruption," Recent Papers, February 2000. Rent-creating corruption can be viewed as detrimental to the overall economic efficiency of a country. Profit-sharing does not affect over all efficiency but instead increases incentive for tax evasion, which de-legitimizes the political system and reduces the provision of government services. Length: 5 pages. Level: General. Online-PDF

    Davoodi, Hamid and Vito Tanzi. "Roads to Nowhere: How Corruption in Public Investment Hurts Growth," Economic Issues No. 12, IMF, 1998. High public spending on capital intensive projects may actually hurt growth in countries where high levels of corruptio n render these projects unproductive in the long run. Corruption actually leads to public investment that is not supported by nonwage expenditure on operation and maintenance, reduces the quality of public infrastructure, and decreases government revenues needed to finance productive spending. Length: 7 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Wei, Shang-Jin. "Corruption Deters Foreign Investment," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1997, summary of a paper. Corruption in some countries can be on a par with a tax rate of approximately 20 percent, prompting many investors to s tay away. As an example, investors from major source countries have shied away from China, which offers high potential returns but suffers from high corruption. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

Crisis Prediction
    Berg, Andrew and Catherine Pattillo. "The Challenges of Predicting Economic Crises," Economic Issues No. 22, IMF, July 2000. The efforts of researchers to develop an economic model that will allow them to accurately and consistently predict economic crise s have so far been frustrated by the inability to account for new and unanticipated factors. Future study of such models should continue but policy makers should rely on them only as one element within a broad scope of analysis. Length: 10 pages. Level: I ntermediate. Online-HTML
Culture and Trade:
    Bhagwati, Jagdish. "Trade and Culture: America's Blind Spot," Recent Papers, September 1999. Many foreign countries feel that their cultures are increasingly under attack from American exports, ranging from movies to hormone treated beef, that they feel i mpose undue American culture on their societies. Instead of responding to these fears with trade sanctions, a better policy would be to find ways to subsidize the production of local culture while allowing the import of American products. Length: 7 pages. Level: General. Online-PDF

    Krugman, Paul. "Enemies of the WTO," Slate, November 1999. Opponents of the WTO claim that it reduces cultural diversity around the world. In reality, modernization acheived through more open trade policies is a choice most people would prefer over traditional lifestyles. Length: 7 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

Currency Crises:
    Dornbusch, Rudi. "Currency Crises in the Aftermath of Reform", paper, December 1996 Argues that external crises can come about from an overvalued currency and from excessive indebtedness. Argentina and Mexico are cited as examples. Length: 4 pages Level: intermediate Online-PDF
Debt Forgiveness:
    Birdsall, Nancy. "A Step in the Wrong Direction," Opinion Piece, The Brookings Institute, published in The Financial Times, April 10, 2000. The Meltzer Commission Report is wrong in recommending that debt to HIPC countries be cancelled. In addition, the IMF should focus more on crisis management and less on long-term development but the Meltzer Commission's suggestion of penalty interest rates on short term loans is flawed and will only hurt developing countries trying to get out of a crisis.Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Diamond, Larry. "Compassionate Conditionality for Africa," Weekly Essays, The Hoover Institution, July 24 - 31, 2000. A plan is proposed by which African countries could obtain debt relief conditional on the imposition of successful, long-lasting reforms aimed at strengthening the rule of law, reducing corruption and promoting good governance. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Faux, Jeff. "Debt: Just forget it," Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, published in The Nation, November 22, 1999. The United States is the world's largest debtor yet it refuses to forgive the debt owed by some of the world's poorest countries to the IMF. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Krueger, Anne and T.N. Srinivasan, "The Harsh Consequences of Forgiveness," Financial Times, Aug 9, 2000, p. 11. Argues that moves to forgive the debts of the heavily indebted poor countries are misplaced for several reasons, and that it would be much better to target new aid that will do the poor in all poor countries, not just the indebted ones, some good. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Sachs, Jeffrey D. "What $8 a Year Could Do for Africa," Op-Ed, Kennedy School of Government, reprinted from the Washington Post, May 23, 2000. African countries are critically short on resources with which to fight diseases such as maleria, tubercu losis, and AIDS. The developed countries should forgive debt owed by such nations and increase contributions in order to get public health facilities operating and modernized. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Sachs, Jeffrey, Kwesi Botchwey, Maciej Cuchra, and Sara Sievers. "Implementing Debt Relief for the HIPCs," CID Policy Papers, Kennedy School of Government, August 1999. The Cologne Initiative does not go far enough in adressing debt relief for Heavily Inde bted Poor Countries. Most importantly, the existing debt service system does not allow countries to utilize resource transfers to adequately meet basic social needs in areas like health and education. Future debt relief proposals should involve cancellati on of outstanding debts while ensuring future resource inflows to enable countries to meet basic social needs. Length: 23 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-PDF

Deindustrialization
    Ramaswamy, Ramana and Robert Rowthorn. "Deindustrialization - It's Causes and Implications," Economic Issues No. 10, IMF, 1997. Deindustrialization in the advanced economies is largely a result of increased productivity in the manufacturing sector as comp ared to the service sector. This trend is expected to continue and poses significant challenges for industrial relations in the future, since the service sector is less suited to systems of centralized wage bargaining than the industrial sector. Length: 7 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML
Developing Country Trade Policies
    Mendelowitz, Allan and Peter Morici. "WTO Should Back Open Market Reforms," WTO and GATT Op-Eds, Economic Strategy Institute, published in the Financial Times, June 1, 1999. Throughout the history of the GATT and WTO, developed countries have allow ed developing countries to retain excessively high levels of tariffs, protectionist industrial policies, and regulation of foreign investment. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Morici, Peter. "Fair Play and the WTO," WTO and GATT Op-Ed, Economic Strategy Institute, October 21, 1999. The WTO must eliminate special and differential treatment for the developing nations and instead focus on dismantling crony mercantilist structures and anti-competitive practices around the world. Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

Development:
    Barro, Robert. "Democracy and the Rule of Law," Forum, The Fraser Institute, June 2000. Democracy is not essential for economic growth; rather poor countries should focus on implementing a strong rule of law including property rights and free market prote ction, as these factors have been proven to do more to promote economic growth. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Froning, Denise H. and Aaron Schavey. "Breaking up a Triple Play on Poor Countries: Changing U.S. Policy in Trade, Aid and Debt Relief," Backgrounder No. 1359, The Heritage Foundation, April 13, 2000. If the United States is truly interested in promoting economic growth worldwide it should lower tariffs and quotas in the textiles and apparel sector, pursue implementation of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, and condition debt forgiveness on pledges not to pursue further assistance. Length: 12 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Mayer, Jorg. "Globalization, Technology Transfer and Skill Accumulation in Low-Income Countries," Discussion Paper No. 150 (summary only), UNCTAD, August 2000. To raise the benefits reaped from globalization, governments might need to make additional effo rts towards a simultaneous increase in technology imports and the skill level of the domestic labour force. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Muravchik, Joshua. "Living in a Material World," Articles, American Enterprise Institute, published in The Washington Post, October 10, 1999. Amartya Sen's latest book covering economic development in the Third World contributes little to the current academic quest to link freedom with development and is often confusing and difficult to follow.Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Outreville, J. Francois. "Financial Development, Human Capital and Political Stability," Discussion Paper No. 142 (summary only), UNCTAD, October 1999. Human capital and socio-political stability are important factors explaining the level of financial dev elopment of developing countries. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Sachs, Jeffrey. "Helping the world's poorest," CID Policy Papers, Kennedy School of Government, August 14, 1999. Deteriorating health conditions and extreme poverty in many of the world's poorest countries are unacceptable in light of the significant adva nces being made in global science and technology. Policy remedies must arise from an alliance of developed and developing countries and must mobilize science and technology to solve poor-country problems. To achieve these goals, more serious consideration as to long-term financing of necessary public goods in poor countries must be entertained by the rich countries. Length: 8 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Samida, Peter. "May 2000 Fraser Forum: Trade and Tariff Tall Tales," Forum, The Fraser Institute, May 2000. A study disproves the idea that protectionism was beneficial for the early development of the American economy. Tariffs only made capital more expe nsive and encouraged unproductive industries. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

Dollarization:
    Barro, Robert J., "The Dollar Club: Why Countries Are So Keen to Join," Business Week, December 11, 2000. Reviews the countries that use, or are moving to use, the U.S. dollar and touches on the reasons for the move. Views Ecuador's dollarization as an interesting experiment, because they lack the preconditions normally thought necessary for successful monetary integration. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Barro, Robert J. "From Seattle to Santiago, Let the Dollar Reign," Digest 1999 No. 3, The Hoover Institution, reprinted from the Wall Street Journal, March 8, 1999. Dollar based, monetary integration would make sense because it would remove the ris k of currency devaluations in many countries and reduce the likelihood that the United States would have to function as a lender of last resort. Length: 5 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Berg, Andrew and Eduardo Borensztein, "Full Dollarization: The Pros and Cons," Economic Issues, No. 24, International Monetary Fund, December 2000. This is a rather detailed treatment of the issues surrounding dollarization, based upon research in a pair of IMF working papers. Length: 15 pages. Level: intermediate. Online-HTML

    Dornbusch, Rudi. "Millenium Resolution: No More Funny Money," Editorials, published in the Financial Times, January 3, 2000. Emerging market economies would be well advised to stabilize their asset markets by surrendering weak currencies and adopti ng major ones such as the dollar and euro. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Leddet, Joseph, "There's No Need for Small Currencies," Wall Street Journal Feb 9, 1999. Argues that most currencies should be abandoned and their countries should adopt one of the major ones -- the dollar, euro, or yen -- as their own. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML (Proquest, avialable via U of M)

Dumping:
    Associated Press. "Japan and Brazil May Pay Tariffs on Steel", Detroit Free Press, February 13, 1999. A preliminary finding by the Clinton administration that Japan and Brazil may have illegally dumped steel in the U.S. may result in the countries paying tariffs of up to 71%. Length: 3 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Barfield, Claude E. "Safeguards vs. Antidumping Protection: Lessons from the Steel 'Crisis'," On the Issues, American Enterprise Institute, June 1999. If the US government decides to protect the steel industry from the recent flood of low cost imports, it should opt for safeguards rather than anti-dumping actions which might be more disruptive to market competition. Length: 5 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Barfield, Claude. "Steel: Use Safeguards Clause," Articles, American Enterprise Institute, published in the Journal of Commerce, March 4, 1999. Temporary safeguards for the steel industry are preferable to anti-dumping duties. Safeguards are more flexible and, compared to anti-dumping duties, less likely to induce trade parteners to impose protectionist regulations of their own. Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Crandall, Robert W. "Whistling Past Big Steel's Graveyard", Brookings Institute Opinion Piece, originally appeared in Wall Street Journal, March 19, 1999. Claims that the anti-dumping legislation regarding foreign steel will not help the U.S. steel industry, whose primary threat is not imports, but smaller American companies. Length: 3 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Dumler, Christopher M. "Anti-Dumping Laws Trash Supercomputer Competition", Briefing Paper No. 32, CATO Institute, October 14, 1997. Claims that our anti-dumping laws punish consumers and penalize foreign companies trying to compete in the U.S. market. Uses the dumping charge against Japanese supercomputer makers to illustrate his point. Length: 9 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Griswold, Daniel T. "Industry Sets Steel Trap for U.S. Economy", Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles, October 23, 1998. Claims that the "Stand Up for Steel" campaign, like our other anti-dumping efforts, is nothing but a protectionist club for industries feeling the heat of global price competition. These laws hurt consumers and industries that use steel. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Hindley, Brian and Patrick A. Messerlin. "Antidumping Industrial Policy: Legalized Protection in the WTO and What to Do About It" American Enterprise Institute, Book Summary, January, 1997. Summary describes what dumping is, and discusses common misconceptions behind antidumping policies and ways to reform antidumping regulations. Length: 3 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Lindsey, Brink. "Anti-dumping law is discriminatory," Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, November 12, 1999. The U.S. anti-dumping law must be reformed to take into account only those cases which represent legitimate price discrimination and below-c ost sales. In addition, the Department of Commerce must make some changes to the methodology it currently uses to determine foreign, market-distorting practices. Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Lindsey, Brink. "Freedom to Trade: Trade Policy in the Dumps", Regulation, Volume 21, No. 3, 1998. Editorial explores negative aspects of American anti-dumping laws. Length: 1 page Level: general Online-PDF

    Lindsey, Brink. "The U.S. Antidumping Law: Rhetoric versus Reality," Trade Policy Analysis No. 7, August 16, 1999. In a review of alleged country-specific dumping cases, the author finds that the methodology used for measuring dumping is not based on whet her sales are actually below cost. Furthermore, many U.S. firms use similar practices, which are in accordance with normal business practice. Length: 31 pages. Level: Intermediate.Online-HTML

    Lukas, Aaron. "A Rotten Tomato Deal at Commerce", Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles, September 10, 1998, originally appeared in the Washington Times. Explains why an anti-dumping law for Mexican tomato imports is unfair to U.S. consumers. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Lukas, Aaron. "Anti-Dumping Law Doesn't Compute", Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies article, May 13, 1999, originally appeared in the Investor's Business Daily. U.S. anti-dumping laws are biased against foreign companies and should be scrapped or reformed. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Mastel, Greg. "Don't Jump to Dump Antidumping Duties", Economic Strategy Institute op-ed, originally appeared in the Oregonian, October 16, 1998. Explains how anti-dumping laws help protect certain industries in Portland, Oregon. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Mastel, Greg. "Existing Antidumping Laws Serve Vital Purpose In Aiding U.S. Steel Industry", Economic Strategy Institute op-ed, originally appeared in the Salt Lake Tribune, October 18, 1998. Antidumping policies should be used to block predatory foreign companies. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Mastel, Greg. "Slapping Duties on Unfairly Priced Items Protects Free Market", Economic Strategy Institute op-ed, originally appeared in the Detroit News, October 22, 1998. Makes a case in favor of U.S. anti-dumping laws. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

Escape Clause
    Mastel, Greg. "Create a Usable Safety Valve," U.S. Trade Law Op-Ed, Economic Strategy Institute, published in The Journal of Commerce, May 21, 1999. Section 201 of U.S. trade law is largely ineffective since the conditions businesses must meet to q ualify for assistance are excessively stringent and the President can ignore the International Trade Commission's recommendations. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Mastel, Greg. "Just Use the Escape Clause?" U.S. Trade Law Op-Ed, Economic Strategy Institute, published in The Journal of Commerce, April 8, 1999. Section 201 of U.S. Trade Law should be strengthened to protect U.S. companies from problems arising from fairly traded imports. However, this will not protect against problems stemming from unfair trading tactics of foreign governments, and other measures are still appropriate in this case.,Length: 3 pages. Level: General.,Online-HTML

The Euro
    Colombatto, Enrico. "The Crisis of Europe's Centralized Federalism: Ambiguities of a Harmonized Currency Union," The Independent Review Vol.4 No. 4, The Independent Institute, Spring 2000. Despite the promise that the Economic and Monetary Union will prom ote prosperity and harmony, Europeans have met its arrival largely with indifference or suspicion. This lack of enthusiasm is likely to tame the ambitions of those who would try to manipulate the EMU for private gain -- at least in the short run. Length: 21 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Dornbusch, Rudi. "Euro Troubles," Editorials, May 2000. The slide of the Euro's value should not be cause for alarm just yet. Instead, European monetary authorities should let the markets continue to value the currency as opposed to enacting potentially h armful intervention. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Dornbusch, Rudi. "Fiscal Aspects of Monetary Integration", paper, January 1997 Discusses the impact that the individual debts of the EU countries will affect the EU as a whole when a common currency is adopted. Length: 3 pages Level: intermediate Online-PDF

    Faux, Jeff. "The Euro, the Dollar, and Their Impact on Global Manufacturing," Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, speech delivered at a meeting of the International Metalworkers Federation meeting in Helsinki, Finland, June 24, 1999. The introduction o f the euro will benefit manufacturers if European governments work to make the euro a strong alternative to the dollar and thereby spur growth in Europe equal to that in the U.S. Length: 5 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Gedmin, Jeffrey. "Euro More about Politics Than Money," Articles, American Enterprise Institute, appeared in the United Press International wire services, September 28, 2000. The debate over the euro must be viewed in terms of the impact it will ha ve on Europe's political framework. Further European integration could lead to creation of a centralized "financial superstate" which would pose considerable challenges for political unity and economic efficiency. Length: 3 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Kregal, Jan A. "Can European Banks Survive a Unified Currency in a Nationally Segmented Capital Market?" Working Paper No. 305, The Jerome Levy Economics Institute, July 2000. The euro was expected to become a substitute for the U.S. dollar as an internat ional currency. However, compromises made during its creation make it a less than perfect substitute in the medium term. This now prevents the creation of a unified capital market and places EU banks at a disadvantage when competing with U.S. banks in glo bal markets. Length: 17 pages. Level: Advanced. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "The Euro: Beware of What You Wish For," Fortune, December 1998. The early prognosis for European Monetary Union was that an inevitable conflict would develop between those governments favoring employment and growth creation policies against those countries favoring price control at any costs. But the conflict materialized in a different way, pitting the unemployment fighting European governments against the European Central Bank which still favors higher interest rates. Length: 4 p ages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "The Euro, Living Dangerously," What's New, June 1999. European Central Bankers are increasingly concerned about the euro's slide against the dollar. This makes it harder for the ECB to pursue a rational monetary policy. Length: 2 pages. Le vel: General. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "Heaven is a weak Euro," What's New, June 1999. The expectation that the European Central Bank will intervene to maintain the euro exchange rate has contributed to the unpredictable fluctuations of the currency and will make any future mone tary support difficult to implement by the European authorities. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    McKibbin, Warwick J. with Thomas Bok. "Which Monetary Regime for Europe? A Quantitative Evaluation", September 1998. Provides a quantitative analysis of three alternative monetary regimes for Europe. Length: 49 pages Level: intermediate Online-PDF

    Solomon, Robert. "International Effects of the Euro" Brookings Institution, Policy Brief #42, January 1999. Covers how the euro will come into use, effects it will have on trade, its exchange rate, and its role in private, external balances. Length: 7 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Wattenberg, Ben. "Counting Change in Euroland," American Enterprise Institute - On the Issues, February 1999. This article says that the Euro is good for America - that the unification of Europe will lead to peace, and that it will not result in as much economic competition for the dollar as was originally anticipated. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

Euro Area:
    Furchtgott-Roth, Diana. "Euro Record Troubling So Far," Articles, American Enterprise Institute, appeared in the United Press International wire services on August 11, 2000. The European Union has not fared as well as other leading industrial regio ns since the introduction of the Euro. Growth and unemployment are higher in Europe than the U.S., Great Britain and Asia due to decades of failed socialist policies and waves of emigration to countries with less government regulation. Length: 3 pages. Le vel: General. Online-HTML
European Unemployment:
    Becker, Gary S. "A Continent Out to Lunch," Digest 1999 No. 2, The Hoover Institution, reprinted from BusinessWeek, November 23, 1998. High unemployment in Europe is primarily a problem caused by rigid labor markets and socialist governments. Lower unemployment can only be achieved if special interest groups are overruled by political leaders with the will to enact true labor market reform. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
European Union Expansion:
    Associated Press. "Money at the Heart of European Union Row" CNN Website 12-12-98. The EU is deadlocked on how to pay for its desired 11-country expansion. Discusses impact of adding these 11 countries. Online-html

    Dornbusch, Rudi. "European Union Enlargement," Editorials, August 2000. In order to effectively integrate the East and Central European economies, the European Union should reduce industry subsidies to member states and promote deregulation of labor marke ts and a reduction in the welfare state system. This will make eventual enlargement much less costly and more beneficial to the East Europeans. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

European Union - U.S. Relations
    Bergsten, Fred C. "America and Europe: Clash of the Titans?" speech published in Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 2, March/April 1999. The U.S. and the E.U. should cooperate now, even if only economically, to provide effective global leadership. If they fail to cooperate, the U.S. and the E.U. will drift apart and bring severe consequences for themselves and the world economy. Length: 9 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML
Exchange Rate Misallignment:
    Krugman, Paul. "What you don't think about can't hurt you," Fortune, June 1999. The high U.S. trade deficit should point towards a future dollar devaluation, but most investors seem to be ignoring this convential thinking much as they are ignoring the suspected overvaluation of the stock market. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Exchange Rate Regimes:
    Aziz, Jahangir and Francesco Caramazza. "Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990's," Economic Issues No. 13, IMF, 1998. The analysis suggests that exchange rate regimes cannot be unambiguously rated in terms of economic performance. But it seems clear that, whatever exchange rate regime a country pursues, long-term success depends on a commitment to sound economic fundamentals--and a strong banking sector. Length: 10 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Ghosh, Atish R., Anne-Marie Gulde, Jonathan D. Ostry and Holger C. Wolf. "Does the Exchange Rate Regime Matter for Inflation and Growth?" Economic Issues No. 2, IMF, 1996. When discussing choice of exchange rate regime, it is useful for countries to consi der not only fixed vs. floating rates, but also the wide variety of managed exchange rate systems. Empirical evidence suggests that no regime is likely to serve all countries at all times. Length: 12 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "The Eternal Triangle," Whats New, October 1998. Most of the major industrial nations have opted for financial liquidity and the ability to use macro- adjustment policies at the expense of exchange rate stability. By contrast, developing na tions are faced with the need to prevent foreign currency debt and speculative attacks, forcing them to make a painful choice between either adjustment policy or capital liquidity. Length: 5 pages.Level: Intermediate.Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "Monomoney Mania," Slate, April 15, 1999. The risk of asymetric shocks makes it illogical for two dissimilar countries to adopt the same currency despite the advantages which could be gained from a more stable exchange rate. Length: 7 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Makin, John H. "Exchange Rate Stability in International Finance," American Enterprise Institute - Testimony, May 21, 1999. Talks about why flexible exchange rates are favorable to fixed rates when dealing with different economies and the need for differing monetary policies. Length: 4 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Velasco, Andres. "Exchange-Rate Policies for Developing Countries: What have we learned? What do we still not know?" G-24 Discussion Paper No. 5, UNCTAD, June 2000. This paper argues that, while currency boards or even dollarization may be justified in so me extreme cases, they are not appropriate for all developing countries. Floating an exchange rate appears to be slightly more beneficial than fixing a rate, but any exchange-rate regime, and especially one of flexible rates, requires complementary polici es - such as capital controls or stronger prudential regulation - to increase its chances of success. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Williamson, John. "Crawling Bands or Monitoring Bands: How to Manage Exchange Rates in a World of Capital Mobility," Policy Brief 99-3, Institute for International Economics, February 1999. Floating rates should be rejected because of the extreme weakness of the economic mechanism that holds the exchange rate close to a level consistent with the fundamentals. Instead, countries ought to weigh the costs and benefits of a crawling band vs. currency board, using floating rates only as a last resort. Length: 15 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

Exchange Stabilization Fund
    Henning, C. Randall. "Preserve the Exchange Stabilization Fund," Policy Brief 99-8, Institute for International Economics, September 1999. The Exchange Stabilization Fund (ESF) is a necessary component of the modern day, global financial system. Furthermo re, legislative efforts to transfer control of the ESF to Congress are misplaced, since this would hinder the ability of the Secretary of Treasury to use the ESF to act quickly and decisively. Measures to increase transparency should be maintained, and ES F loans should be made conditionally and only when the foreign country has exhausted available alternatives. Length: 10 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML
Fast Track:
    Barfield, Claude E. "Politics of Trade and Fast Track in the United States", speech given at the "First Academic Colloquium of the Americas" at the University of Costa Rica, March 12-14, 1998. Gives and discusses three reasons why fast-track authority will not be granted by Congress at least until a new president comes into office in 2001: political and interest group maneuvering in both parties, the failure of presidential leadership since 1994, and the existence of differences over the content and future direction of trade policy in the U.S. Length: 5 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Faux, Jeff. "Fast Track and the Global Economy", Policy Brief No. 123, Economic Policy Institute, November 4, 1997. Cautions against the U.S. jumping into a global economy because not all countries have economies as efficient as our own. Uses Asia and Mexico as examples. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Faux, Jeff. "Fast Track Will Not Help Economic Recovery, National Unity", EPI President's Letter to Congressional Leaders, September 26, 2001. Argues against fast track, based on growing trade deficit, adverse effects of previous trade agreements, and growing world poverty. Length: 4 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Kusnet, David & Robert E. Scott. "Fast Track: Why Now?" Viewpoints, Economic Policy Institute, published in the Ft. Myers News-Press, October 5, 1998. Congress should not grant the President "Fast Track" trade negotiating power that does not includ e freedom to negotiate labor and environmental standards. Length: 2 pages.Level: General.Online-HTML

    Sweeney, John. "Fast-Track Negotiating Authority: The Facts," Trade, The Heritage Foundation, August 26, 1998. The President should be granted fast-track negotiating power since this has proven to effectively open many markets to U.S. exports, does not in fringe on the power of Congress to regulate trade, represents a bipartisan initiative, and will strengthen the American economy domestically. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Sweeney, John. "Why Free Trade Matters to the American Farmer," Backgrounder No. 1233, The Heritage Foundation, November 6, 1998. Without fast track negotiating authority, the President will not have the ability to negotiate free trade agreements that wou ld open overseas markets for American farmers. Length: 8 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

Financial Architecture:
    Akyuz, Yilmaz. "The Debate on the International Financial Architecture: Reforming the Reformers," Discussion Paper No. 148 (summary only), UNCTAD, April 2000. Survey of efforts to reform the international financial architecture and proposals for developin g countries. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Akyuz, Yilmaz and Andrew Cornford. "Capital Flows to Developing Countries and the Reform of the International Financial System," Discussion Paper No. 143 (summary only), UNCTAD, November 1999. In light of the recent financial crises, this paper examines t he proposals for remedying the structural and institutional weaknesses in the global financial architecture through such means as greater transparency and disclosure, strengthened financial regulation and supervision, and bailing in the private sector by arrangements for orderly debt workouts. The paper stresses the importance for developing countries of maintaining autonomous policies towards capital movements. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Frankel, Jeffrey A. "The International Financial Architecture," Brookings Institute - Policy Brief #51, June 1999. This article considers the uses of different exchange rate regimes in light of a country's political and economic conditions. Length: 7 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Mayer, Martin. "Risk Reduction in the New Financial Architecture," Public Policy Brief No. 56, The Jerome Levy Economics Institute, 1999. The liberalization of the global financial system has brought with it the need for greater control of destabilizing i ncome streams. Most proposals for greater bank transparency do not take into account the fact that the more important sources of financial instability are the technologically driven financial markets. Thus, efforts to prevent future crises should include reforms aimed at controlling capital flows during a crisis until the system is stabilized. Length: 53 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Montrone, Paul M. "Blueprints for a New Global Financial Architecture", speech, October 7, 1998. Discusses weakness of the current global financial structure and proposes solutions to these weaknesses. Solutions include redesigning rules governing domestic bank safety nets, lending by the IMF, international competition in banking, global capital flows, and government debt management policies. Length: 25 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

Financial Crises:
    Krugman, Paul. "The Confidence Game," The New Republic, October 5, 1998. Financial crises are largely caused by shifting investor sentiments. Policy prescriptions intended to halt such crises are focused on regaining investor confidence and often n ot based on classical economic fundamentals. This is largely the result of the increased level of capital flows and the importance ascribed to attracting this capital at all costs in the new world economy. Length: 7 pages.Level: General.Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "Heresy Time," What's New, October 1998. Some policies being employed by the emerging markets to dig themselves out of recession run contrary to traditional economic fundamentals in order to allow the financial markets free reign. This is w orrying since it indicates a tendancy on the part of economists and policy-makers to rationalize failure instead of asking what policies would be practical and responsible. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Kruman, Paul. "Is the Economic Crisis a Crisis for Economics?" Slate, November 1998. The current macroeconomic crises are rooted in the fluctuations of the business cycle and the in- and outflows of financial capital. This makes traditional solutio ns to these problems almost irrelevant since nations are unable or unwilling to use monetary and fiscal policy which might hurt capital flows. Length: 6 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Krugman, Paul. "A Monetary Fable," What's New, February 1999. The recent financial crises in Latin America and Asia highlight the difficulties emerging markets face in choosing an exchange rate regime. Increasing speculation by investors has made it impos sible for countries to ensure the stability of smaller currencies. Yet the costs of giving up monetary policy in order to adopt a stronger currency are prohibitive. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Onlin e-HTML

    Tornell, Aaron. "Common Elements in Financial Crises," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1999, summary of a paper. The most common elements in a financial crisis include a country with low cash reserves to defend their currency, a weak banking system, and a history of currency appreciation. In addition, a certain amount of herd behavior or "positive feedback buying" on the part of international investors can be found to motivate such crises. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

Financial Integration:
    Bekaert, Geert et al. "Effects of Financial Market Integration," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 1999, summary of a paper by Geert Bekaert, Campbell Harvey and Robin Lumsdaine. The extent to which an emerging market is integrated int o the global financial system can be measured by identifying a "break" in key financial and economic data. Regulatory reforms introduced in order to liberalize markets are generally followed by a significantly larger and more volatile equity market, impro ved credit ratings and increased economic growth. However, these "breaks" do not always correspond to the dates of the official capital market reforms. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Ferguson, Governor Roger W. Jr., "Global Financial Integration: Historical Perspective and Policy Implications", Annual Policy Seminar of the National Association for Business Economics, Washington D.C, March 3, 1999. Fed governor discusses lessons that can be learned from the pre-World War I economy. Length: 6 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

Foreign Aid:
    Fraser Institute. "When Foreign Aid Doesn't," Forum Editorial, February 1999. If the developed world was truly interested in aiding the Third World, they would reduce aid to corrupt governments and concentrate on reducing trade barriers and encourage ec onomic liberalization. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Samida, Dexter. "A Hand Out Instead of a Hand Up: Where Foreign Aid Fails," Source Paper, The Fraser Institute. Policy makers should take a closer look at how effective foreign aid programs are at promoting economic freedom and growth. The developed world should cut back on aid to countries with low levels of economic and political freedom, eliminate tarrifs, subsides and other trade barriers, and promote the role of voluntary organizations for distribution of aid and services in recipient countries. Leng th: 11 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

Foreign Direct Investment:
    Agosin, Manuel R. and Ricardo Mayer. "Foreign Investment in Developing Countries: Does It Crowd Out Domestic Investment?," Discussion Paper No. 146 (summary only), UNCTAD, February 2000. When examining the effects of foreign direct investment on developin g regions, it can be concluded that the effects are not always beneficial to the domestic economy. Often, domestic firms are subject to strong crowding out effects as a result of FDI. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Griswold, Daniel T. "Sen Hollings Aims at Germany, Hits U.S." Trade Policy Articles, The Cato Institute, September 11, 2000. The Hollings amendment to restrict foreign investment in U.S. telecommunications firms would eliminate a review process that is al ready too restrictive and replace it with a flat ban that allows no discretion, no matter how benign the deal or how friendly the foreign government involved. In fact, such investment should be encouraged, as it creates jobs for American workers, lowers p rices for consumers, and benefits company shareholders by injecting fresh capital into company operations. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Lipsey, Robert. "Direct Investment is a Steady Source of Foreign Capital," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1999, summary of a paper. In the 1990's the European Union was the leading source of foreign direct investment, trailed by the United States, Japan and the East Asian "Tigers." In the EU, this is matched by heavy intra-European investment, while the U.S. also recieved a significant inflow. Latin America and developing Asia have been the largest recipients of net inflows from for eign countries. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Lipsey, Robert. "Foreign Direct Investment Changes Ownership, not Location," Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2000, summary of a paper. If FDI transfers assets and production from less efficient to more efficient owners and managers, then FDI can be viewed in recipient countries as freeing capital frozen in industries that owners (including governments) would like to leave. It permits the owners to use their capital in what they consider more appropriate ways, at home or abroad. In i nvesting countries, outward FDI permits the country's firms to better exploit their skills and technological advantages. Length: 1 page. Level: General. Online-HTML

Free Trade:
    Bhagwati, Jagdish. "Free Trade in the 21st Century: Managing Viruses, Phobias and Social Agendas," Recent Papers, April 1999. The fear of free trade in the United States has been instigated by unions which fear downward pressure on domestic wages and by s ocial activists whose movement claims that free trade is harmful to labor standards and the environment. However, emperical evidence shows that free trade actually results in overall wage growth. Furthermore, trying to achieve social goals through embargo 's and objections to products based on their production process methods (PPM) will only risk distorting free trade without achieving the intended labor or environmental goals. Length: 24 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-PDF

    Bovard, James. "The Myth of Fair Trade" Cato Policy Analysis No. 164, November 1, 1991. Claims that many trade barriers, especially anti-dumping laws, hurt American consumers and foreign companies. Length: 27 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Chimerine, Lawrence. "Two-Way Trade vs. One-Way Trade", Economic Strategy Institute Op-Ed Page, originally appeared in Journal of Commerce, March 19, 1999. Advocates two-way free trade and discourages the U.S. from implementing protectionist trade policies. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Franklin, Barbara Hackman. "Global Trade: 10 Steps to Reclaiming U.S. Leadership," Lecture No. 679, The Heritage Foundation, August 8, 2000. The world economy is becoming an increasingly difficult environment in which to implement effective leadership. Ne w strategies for the U.S. should center on promoting free market discipline and opportunities while allaying the fears and concerns of those countries which might be left behind. Length: 8 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Franklin, Barbara Hackman. "Restoring U.S. Leadership on Trade," Views, The Heritage Foundation, published in Investor's Business Daily. The U.S. needs to take steps to restore credibility and leadership on trade issues. Some of these steps include restoring fast-track authority, stop insisting that trade agreements include labor and environmental standards, push for regional free trade areas, and support China's entry into the WTO. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Froning, Denise. "Why Spurn Free Trade?" Views, The Heritage Foundation, published in The Washington Times, September 15, 2000. Free trade has actually been proven to benefit low income classes as much, if not more than, the upper classes. Examples include El Salvador and Taiwan, both of which have liberalized trade regimes and instituted free market reforms, and now enjoy prosperity comparable to many developed nations. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Froning, Denise H. "The Benefits of Free Trade: A Guide for Policymakers," Backgrounder No. 1391, The Heritage Foundation, August 25, 2000. Benefits of free trade include the promotion of innovation and competition, the generation of economic growth, the dissemination of democratic values, and greater economic freedom such as stronger property rights and free market reforms. Length: 14 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Glassman, James K. "The Blessings of Free Trade," Trade Policy Briefing Paper #1, The Cato Institute, February 23, 1998. The U.S. should immediately end all trade negotiations and eliminate trade barriers. This will prompt other countries of the world to follow suit. Length: 6 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Glassman, James K. "Stand Up For Free Trade," On the Issues, American Enterprise Institute, November 1998. As the U.S. economy slows down, demands for protection from foreign competition should not be met. Meeting these demands would plunge the world into a deep recession. Discusses positive aspects of free trade. Length: 2 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Irwin, Douglas A. "Against the Tide: An Intellectual History of Free Trade" American Enterprise Institute, Book Summary, July 1996. Summary covers beliefs against free trade prior to Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations", Adam Smith's case for free trade, and arguments against free trade that emerged after Smith's "Wealth of Nations". Length: 4 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Law, Marc. "In Defense of Free Trade," Forum, The Fraser Institute, March 1998. Opponents of free trade ignore the idea of comparative advantage. Protectionist measures may save a few domestic jobs, but they will hurt a much larger group of consumers forc ed to pay higher prices. Length: 2 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML

    Lindsey, Brink. "Free Trade Nationalism" Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles, November 2, 1998, originally appeared in Weekly Standard. Explains why many U.S. conservatives are moving away from free trade and embracing more trade barriers and even outright protectionism. Length: 5 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Lindsey, Brink. "Kick Me, I'm for Free Trade," Trade Policy Article, The Cato Institute, February 22, 2000. Free-trade advocates need to change their strategy from touting the value of free trade to American companies to focus on the benefits free trade c an provide domestically for consumers. The emphasis should shift to opening home markets without complex trade negotiations that often result in more restrictions. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Lindsey, Brink. "A New Track for U.S. Trade Policy," Trade Policy Analysis No. 4, September 11, 1998. Proponents of free trade should shift their focus from a diversion-and-appeasement strategy to complete removal of all trade barriers. Continuing to rely on the notion of "fair trade" established through complex negotiations and trade policies is outdated and must be abandoned in favor of a new, more open "free trade" regime. Length: 25 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML

    Lizza, Ryan. "Silent Partner: The Man Behind the Anti-Free-Trade Revolt," The New Republic, January 10, 2000. This article discusses the political and economic impact of conservative Roger Milliken's anti-free-trade persuasion. Length: 10 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Sweeney, John. "Why Free Trade Matters to the American Farmer", Heritage Foundation Backgrounder, No. 1233, November 6, 1998. Record harvests, worldwide grain surpluses, and slumping demand in Asia have driven U.S. agriculture commodities to their lowest prices in decades. The only way to guarantee the economic stability of U.S. agriculture is to expand the access of American farmers to overseas markets. Length: 29 pages Level: general Online-HTML

Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)
    Eiras, Ana and Gerald P. O'Driscoll, Jr., "Advancing Free Trade in Latin America: The Test of Leadership," Executive Memorandum No. 649, The Heritage Foundation, February 9, 2000. The Latin American countries have grown in the 1990's thanks to low inflati on, less government intervention and lower trade barriers. However, the United States has not provided strong leadership to bring the Western Hemisphere closer to a free trade zone for the Americas. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
French Crisis:
    Morais, Richard C. "Even the Chefs are Leaving France" Forbes Magazine Nov. 30, 1998. Length: 13 pages Level: general Compares the French economic crisis to that of Japan. Discusses how the country's high taxes, huge unemployment rate, extreme labor laws, inefficient labor bureaucracy, and government scandals contribute to the crises. Online-HTML
French Economy
    Gordon, Philip. "While the World Watches Jose Bove, France Adapts to Globalization," Opinion Piece, The Brookings Institute, July 10, 2000. France is becoming steadily more globalized as evidenced by a decline in the influence of the state, a spate of foreign mergers and acquisitions and growing numbers of internet users.Length: 3 pages. Level: General.Online-HTML
FTA (US-Canada)
    Editorial. "Tenth Anniversary of the FTA is an Occasion to Celebrate," Forum, The Fraser Institute, January 1999. The effects of NAFTA and the FTA have been to increase investment in Canada and increase job creation. There have been minimal signs that the manufacturing sector has been harmed. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Gains from Trade
    Dorman, Peter. "The Free Trade Magic Act," EPI Briefing Paper, September 2001. The author criticizes the estimates of Brown, Deardorff, and Stern of the economic benefits of a possible reduction in world-wide trade barriers. The computer model used for these estimates excludes many of the considerations that he views as important, such as effects on aggregate employment, impact on the environment, and so forth. Length: 15 pages. Level: Intermediate. Online-HTML
GATT/WTO:
    Bergsten, C. Fred. "Fifty Years of the GATT/WTO: Lessons from the Past for Strategies for the Future", Institute for International Economics Working Paper, No. 98-3. Summarizes five key principles that explain the success of the GATT/WTO system. Length: 11 pages Level: general Online-HTML
Genetically Modified Organisms
    Adkisson, Perry. "Cultivating Public Confidence in Genetically Modified Crops," Op-Ed Service, National Academies of Science, April 28, 2000. Genetically modified agricultural products have helped farmers become more productive and cost-effective. Further research must be conducted in areas such as the possible effects of transgenic crops on the human immune system and other beneficial insects and organisms. Federal agencies must carefully document such effects and work to improve public confidence. Lengt h: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Schulz, Evan. "Identifying Modified Food without Scaring Consumers," U.S. Economy Op-Ed, Economic Strategy Institute, published in Bridge News, July 13, 2000. A system of voluntary labeling for food products would provide activists with enough info rmation to purchase food safely without unfairly implicating genetically modified products which have not been proven harmful. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

Global Crisis:
    Bergsten, C. Fred. "A New Strategy for the Global Crisis", Institute for International Economics, International Economy Policy Brief, Sep 1998; shorter version originally appeared in The Washington Post, September 20, 1998. Claims that the Asian crisis is worse than most people imagine and suggests strategies for recovery. Length: 4 pages Level: general Online-HTML

    Griswold, Daniel T. and Ian Vasquez. "A Global Intervention Crisis" Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles, November 11, 1998. Originally appeared in Journal of Commerce. The world's current economic troubles are not a failure of free markets, but of bad policy. Length: 3 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Lindsey, Lawrence B. "The Best Insurance Against Global Recession" from AEI On the Issues, the journal of the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, January 1999. The economic excess building up in the U.S. economy tends to be self-correcting. Should our economy lose momentum and import less, chances of a global recession would increase dramatically. Discusses the need for either a monetary or fiscal economic insurance policy. Length: 3 pages Level: intermediate Online-HTML

    Palley, Thomas I. "Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Main Street Alternative" Financial Markets Center Article. Claims that the recent economic crises in East Asia and Brazil have forced open high levels of debate regarding the future course of globalization. Discusses some alternatives to current policies. Length: 3 pages Level: general Online-HTML

Global Warming:
    Christy, John R. and John M. Wallace. "The Truth About Global Warming," Op-Ed Service, National Academies of Science, February 4, 2000. Many scientists still have doubts as to whether increasing greenhouse gases or human-induced changes have brought about global warming. Further scientific research is necessary before policy makers and special interests can reasonably claim to fully understand the implications of global warming. Length: 2 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML
Globalization:
    Bhagwati, Jagdish. "Globalization Already Had a Human Face," American Enterprise Institute - On the Issues, September 1999. This article says that the criticisms of globalization, including its effects on domestic workers, are faulty and not entirely factual. Length: 3 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML

    Finlayson, Jock, "Globalization Myths," Fraser Forum, March, 2001. This primarily disputes the notion that globalization causes a race to the bottom in wages, labor standards, and environmental conditions. It notes that these conditions tend to be better in globalized economies, and that most FDI is into countries with high standards, not low ones. Length: 4 pages. Level: General. Online-HTML


24 Economic Term Paper Topic Ideas For College Students

Writing a unique term paper tends to be a long and tedious process. Therefore, you need to start brainstorming for ideas as soon as you are given the assignment. An early work plan and organization will make your writing process much easier. A term paper carries a lot of weight in it when it comes to your final year results. Thus, the best way to ensure you score as high marks as possible is by choosing the most outstanding subjects. If you have been assigned to write on an economics topic, there are a lot of areas you can look into. Here is a list of the top 24 topic ideas that can help you:

  • How is the Global economy affected by high obesity rates?
  • What are the effects of cyber-crime on the Internet economy?
  • Which was the best economic policy formulated by President Obama in 2014?
  • How effectively has the European Union managed the Economic crisis?
  • Effect of global warming on the economic.
  • What are the impacts of labor immigration and migration on a state's economy?
  • Economic advantages resulting from changes in climate.
  • Does the World Bank still have an impact on international economies?
  • How is the European economy affected by the trade policy in China?
  • Economic consequences of an increase in the number of endangered biodiversity.
  • China's political and economic power
  • Which are the global economic effects emerging from the Middle East wars?
  • Global impacts in the travel agency due to an Ebola pandemic
  • How are low fuel prices affecting country's which are dependent on fossil exports?
  • Which are the probable effects of the continuous economy recovery process?
  • Will the European rate of interest increase in the next year?
  • Which is expected to be the largest economic threat in the United Kingdom in 2015?
  • How will the Middle East economies be affected by the new alternative sources of energy?
  • Which is expected to be the World's leading economy?
  • Impact of the phone technology on the World's economy.
  • Effects of political on Russia's economy on prices of energy.
  • Is the Keynesian model the most viable technique for solving economic challenges?
  • Is economic growth dependent on the government?
  • Analysis of the 2008 economic collapse.

These are just but a few of the most current intriguing economic topics that you can use for your term paper. Select one that interests you and raises your enthusiasm as well as that of your readers.

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