Ozone Depletion Research Papers

Publications About the Ozone Depletion Theory of Global Warming

Ward, P. L., 2017, Experimental evidence for why greenhouse gases cannot be the primary cause of global warming : in review. [PDF]

Ward, P. L., 2016, On the Planck-Einstein Relation: in review. [PDF]

Ward, P. L., 2016, The physics of global warming: in review. [PDF]

Ward, P. L., 2016, Problems with the physics of greenhouse warming: submitted. [PDF]

Ward, P. L., 2016, Radiant thermal energy is not additive: submitted. [PDF]

Ward, P. L., 2016, Ozone depletion explains global warming: Current Physical Chemistry, v. 6, no. 4, p. 275-296. [PDF].

Ward, P. L., 2015, Chapter 54. The ozone depletion theory of global warming: International Conference on Geoscience and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen, China, November 16-17, in Chan, K., ed., Future Communication Technology and Engineering: Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Future Communication Technology and Engineering (FCTE 2014), Shenzhen, China, 16-17 November 2014, CRC Press, p. 253-259. [PDF][Book online][Book]

Ward, P. L., 2010, Understanding volcanoes may be the key to controlling global warming: Society of Vacuum Coaters Bulletin, Summer, p. 26-34. [PDF]

Ward, P. L., 2009, Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways: Thin Solid Films, v. 517, no. 11, p. 3188-3203, doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.01.005. [PDF][Table S1 PDF][Table S1 XLS][References PDF]

Presentations and Posters

2017, February 10, Fourth Santa Fe Conference on Global and Regional Climate Change, Ozone Depletion Appears to Play the Dominant Role in Global Warming Throughout Earth History[Abstract][Slides]

2017, February 8, Fourth Santa Fe Conference on Global and Regional Climate Change, The footprints of climate change throughout the geologic record [Abstract][Poster]

2017, January 23, American Meteorological Society, Volcanoes Drive Climate Variability By Emitting Ozone Weeks Before Eruptions, By Forming Lower Stratospheric Aerosols, By Causing Sustained Ozone Depletion, and By Causing Rapid Changes In Regional Ozone Concentrations Affecting Temperature and Pressure Differences Driving Atmospheric Oscillations[Abstract][Poster]

2016, December 12, American Geophysical Union, Volcanoes drive climate variability by emitting ozone weeks before eruptions, by forming lower stratospheric aerosols, by causing sustained ozone depletion, and by causing rapid changes in regional ozone concentrations affecting temperature and pressure differences driving atmospheric oscillations[Abstract][Poster]

2016, September 26, Geological Society of America, How variations in the rates of effusive basaltic flood volcanism versus aerosol-forming explosive volcanism have driven climate change and rates of mass extinction throughout Earth history and how humans have modified this interaction[Talk][Abstract][Slides]

2016, September 8, New Dawn Of Truth: London Climate Change Conference, Climate change throughout Earth history warms suddenly and cools slowly in erratic sequences that are not cyclic [Talk][Abstract][Comment][Slides]

2016, September 6, Geological Society of London, Geologic evidence for how volcanoes have driven climate change throughout Earth history [Talk Part 1][Talk Part 2][Abstract][Slides]

2016, June 15, American Association for the Advancement of Science Pacific Division Society, How Explosive Volcanic Eruptions Cause Global Cooling While Effusive Basaltic Eruptions Cause Global Warming[Abstract][Slides]

2016, January 12, American Meteorological Society, Mario Molina's research not only led to the solution for the Antarctic ozone hole, but it led to the solution for global warming caused by humans since 1960[Talk][Abstract][Slides]

2015, Dec 18, American Geophysical Union, Climate throughout geologic time was cooled by sequences of explosive volcanic eruptions forming aerosols that reflect and scatter ultraviolet solar radiation and warmed by relatively continuous extrusion of basaltic lava that depletes ozone, allowing more solar ultraviolet radiation to reach earth[Abstract][Poster]

2015, November 1, Geological Society of America, Climate throughout geologic time has been controlled primarily by the balance between abrupt warming caused by voluminous effusive eruptions of basaltic magma over months to hundreds of thousands of years and abrupt cooling caused by major explosive eruptions of evolved magmas over hours to days[Talk][Abstract][Slides]

2015, October 28,TEDx Wilmington, Volcanoes: A Forge for Climate Change[Talk][About the event][Slides]

2015, May 21-23, Geological Society of America Rocky Mountain Section, Climate throughout geologic time has been controlled primarily by the balance between cooling caused by major explosive eruptions of evolved magmas typical of island arcs and warming caused by voluminous effusive eruptions of basaltic magma typical of subaerial ocean ridges, island chains, and continental flood basalts[Abstract][Talk]

2015, April 12-17, European Geosciences Union, General Assembly, The basic thermodynamics of Earth’s radiation budget[Abstract][Poster]

2015, January 5, American Meteorological Society, The global warming hiatus is explained quite directly by the ozone-depletion theory of global warming[Abstract][Poster]

2014, December 18, American Geophysical Union, Climate throughout geologic time has been controlled primarily by the balance between cooling caused by major explosive eruptions of evolved magmas typical of island arcs and warming caused by voluminous effusive eruptions of basaltic magma typical of subaerial ocean ridges and island chains[Abstract][Poster]

2013, December 9, American Geophysical Union, How volcanism controls climate change [Abstract][Poster]

2012, December 7, American Geophysical Union, The effects of volcano-induced ozone depletion on short-lived climate forcing in the Arctic[Abstract][Poster]

2011, December 5, American Geophysical Union,  Voluminous Icelandic basaltic eruptions appear to cause abrupt global warming[Abstract][Poster]

2010, December 13, American Geophysical Union, The world’s largest experiment manipulating solar energy input to earth resumed in 2003[Abstract][Poster]

2010, April 18, Society of Vacuum Coaters,  Understanding volcanology may be the key to controlling global warming[Abstract][Presentation]

2009, December 16, American Geophysical Union, Large volcanic eruptions affect climate in many more ways than just cooling[Abstract][Poster]

2008, December 17, American Geophysical Union,  Holocene concentrations of methane in the atmosphere are in part proportional to concentrations of sulfur dioxide and inversely proportional to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere[Abstract][Poster]

2008, October 6, Geological Society of America,  How the rate of volcanism initiated the medieval warm period and controlled its periods of drought[Abstract][Presentation]

Press Releases

2016, February 11, PR Newswire: Supreme Court's Stay of EPA Carbon Rules Gives Time to Get the Climate Science Right [Press release]

2016, January 11, PR Newswire: Reducing Greenhouse Emissions Unlikely to Reduce Global Warming; A More Likely Cause Is Ozone Depletion, According to Longtime US Geophysicist [Press release]

2015, December 15, PR Newswire: Paris Climate Accord, an Important Step Forward, But Are We Solving the Right Problem? [Press release]

2015, November 12, PR Newswire: Whistle-Blower U.S. Geophysicist Issues $10,000 Challenge [Press release]

2015, January 5, American Meteorological Society [Press release]

2014, December 16, American Geophysical Union [Press release]

2014, November 18, Initial announcement [Press release]

Not Published

I have written several papers and submitted them for publication. Most were not published not because of any complaint about the science presented, but because the journals concerned would not submit them for review. These papers provide clear documentation of the development of my ideas over time. The papers are listed, most recent first, along with key elements of the editors' responses.

Ward, P. L., 2015, The thermodynamics of climate change, submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics on 5/17/15 [PDF]     Editor's decision and discussion.

The ozone depletion theory of global warming submitted to Nature on April 7, 2014. [PDF]

On the link between ozone depletion and global warming submitted to Science on Febrary 24, 2014. [PDF]

Letter sent to the Editor of Science on March 7, 2014, to which there was no reply. [PDF]

Global warming can be explained by depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by human activities and by volcanism submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics on May 27, 2013. [PDF]

Ozone depletion enhanced by volcanism is a primary cause of global warming submitted to Nature November 22, 2012 [PDF]

Volcanism, ozone depletion, global warming, and the drought of 2012 submitted to Science on October 23, 2012 [PDF]

The primary role of solar-ultraviolet-energy-absorbing gases in global warming submitted to Science on April 25, 2011 [PDF]


Last updated 29-Aug-2017    © 2015 Peter L. Ward. All Rights Reserved

Depletion Of The Ozone Layer

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The ozone layer diminishes more each year. As the area of
polar ozone depletion (commonly called the ozone hole) gets
larger, additional ultraviolet rays are allowed to pass through.
These rays cause cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity to
diseases.1 What causes the depletion of the ozone layer?

     In 1970, Crutzen first showed that nitrogen oxides produced
by decaying nitrous oxide from soil-borne microbes react
catalytically with ozone hastening its depletion. His findings
started research on "global biogeochemical cycles" as well as the
effects of supersonic transport aircraft that release nitrogen
oxide into the stratosphere.2

     In 1974, Molina and Rowland found that human-made
chlorofluorocarbons used for making foam, cleaning fluids,
refrigerants, and repellents transform into ozone-depleting
agents.3
     
Chlorofluorocarbons stay in the atmosphere for several
decades due to their long tropospheric lifetimes. These compounds
are carried into the stratosphere where they undergo hundreds of
catalytic cycles with ozone.4 They are broken down into chlorine
atoms by ultraviolet radiation.5 Chlorine acts as the catalyst
for breaking down atomic oxygen and molecular ozone into two
molecules of molecular oxygen. The basic set of reactions that
involve this process are:
                    Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2 and
                    ClO + O -->Cl + O2
     The net result:
                    O3 + O -->2O2

     Chlorine is initially removed in the first equation by the
reaction with ozone to form chlorine monoxide. Then it is
regenerated through the reaction with monatomic oxygen in the
second equation. The net result of the two reactions is the
depletion of ozone and atomic oxygen.6

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and methyl bromide are a
few of the ozone depletion substances (ODS) that break down ozone
under intense ultraviolet light. The bromine and fluorine in
these chemicals act as catalysts, reforming ozone (O3) molecules
and monatomic oxygen into molecular oxygen (O2).

In volcanic eruptions, the sulfate aerosols released are a
natural cause of ozone depletion. The hydrolysis of N2O5 on
sulfate aerosols, coupled with the reaction with chlorine in HCl,
ClO, ClONO2 and bromine compounds, causes the breakdown of ozone.
The sulfate aerosols cause chemical reactions in addition to
chlorine and bromine reactions on stratospheric clouds that
destroy the ozone.8

     Some ozone depletion is due to volcanic eruptions. Analysis
of the El Chichon volcanic eruption in 1983 found ozone
destruction in areas of higher aerosol concentration (Hofmann and
Solomon, "Ozone Destruction through Heterogeneous Chemistry
Following the Eruption of El Chichon"). They deduced that the
"aerosol particles act as a base for multiphase reactions leading

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Related Searches

Ozone Layer         Depletion         Chlorofluorocarbons         Rays         Ozone Depletion         Chlorine         Fluids         Nitrogen        




to ozone loss."9 Chlorine and bromine cooperates with
stratospheric particles such as ice, nitrate, and sulfate to
speed the reaction. Sulfuric acid produced by eruptions enhances
the destructiveness of the chlorine chemicals that attack ozone.
Volcanically perturbed conditions increase chlorine's breakdown
of ozone. Also, chlorine and bromine react well under cold
temperatures 15-20 kilometers up in the stratosphere where mos

of the ozone is lost. This helps explain why there is less ozone
in the Antarctic and Arctic polar regions.10, 11

     The Antarctic ozone hole is the largest. A 1985 study
reported the loss of large amounts of ozone over Halley Bay,
Antarctica. The suspected cause was the catalytic cycles
involving chlorine and nitrogen.12

     Halons, an especially potent source of ozone depleting
molecules, are used in fire extinguishers, refrigerants, chemical
processing. They are composed of bromine, chlorine, and carbon.
Most of the bromine in the atmosphere originally came from
halons. Bromine is estimated to be 50 times more effective than
chlorine in destroying ozone.13

Insect fumigation, burning biomass, and gasoline usage all
release methyl bromide into the air. Some is recaptured before
reaching the stratosphere by soil bacteria and chemicals in the
troposphere. The remainder breaks down under exposure to
sunlight, freeing bromine to attack the stratospheric ozone.
Annual atmospheric releases of methyl bromide include 20 to 60
kilotons from fumigation (fifty percent of the methyl bromide
used as a soil fumigant is released into the atmosphere), 10 to
50 kilotons from biomass burning, and .5 to 1.5 kilotons from
leaded gasoline automobile exhaust each year. Marine plant life
also releases methyl bromide, but most is recaptured in seawater
reactions.14, 15

     Hydrochlorofluorocarbons(HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs)
are being used as substitutes to replace chlorofluorocarbons.
They "still contain chlorine atoms that are responsible for the
catalytic destruction of ozone but they contain hydrogen which
makes them vulnerable to the reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH)
in the lower atmosphere.” The reactions in the troposphere remove
the chlorine before it reaches the stratosphere where ozone
depletion occurs.16
     
Some of the HFCs and HCFCs being used to replace CFCs are
HFC-134a, HCFC-22, HCFC-141b and HCFC-123. HFC-134a replaces CFC-
12 in most refrigeration uses. HCFC-22 is marketed as a coolant
for commercial and residential air-conditioning systems. HCFC-
141b and HCFC-123 are used for making urethane and other foams.1

     Each year since the 1970s, the stratospheric ozone above
Antarctica disappears during September and reforms in November
when ozone-rich air comes in from the north. Because new
chemicals that do not destroy ozone are replacing ozone-depleting
chemicals, the ozone hole is projected to disappear by the middle
of the 21st century.18


References:
     1. Monastersky, R. (1992, September 19). UV hazard: Ozone
lost versus ozone gained. Science News, 142, pp. 180-181.
2. Lipkin, R. (1995, October 21). Ozone Depletion research
wins Nobel. Science News, 148, pp. 262
3. Lipkin (ibid.)
4. Consortium for International Earth Science Information
Network(CIESIN) (1996, June, Version: 1.7). Chlorofluorocarbons
and Ozone Depletion. http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcozn.html
5. CIESIN (1996, June, Version: 1.7). Production and Use of
Chlorofluorocarbons. http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/prodcfcs.html
6. CIESIN (1996, June, Version: 1.7). Ozone Depletion
Processes. http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/ozndplt

     7. US Environmental Protection Agency (1996). Ozone
Depletion Glossary. http://www.epa.gov/ozone/defns.html
8. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1994).
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion-Executive Summary.
http://www.al.noaa.gov/WWWHD/pubdocs/Assessment94/executive-
summary.html#A
9. CIESIN (1996, June, Version 1.7). Ozone Depletion
Processes. (ibid.)
10. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1994).
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion-Executive Summary.
(ibid.)
11. Kerr, Richard A. (1994, October 14). Antarctica Ozone
Hole Fails to Recover. Science, 266, pp.217
     12. Kerr, Richard A. (ibid.)
13. US Environmental Protection Agency. Ozone Depletion
Glossary. (ibid.)
14. Adler, T. (1995, October, 28). Methyl Bromide doesn't
stick around. Science News, 148, pp. 278
15. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1994).
Scientific Assessment of Ozone: 1994-Executive Summary. (ibid.)
16. CIESIN (1996, June, Version: 1.7). Ozone Depletion
Processes. (ibid.

     17. CIESIN (1996, June, Version: 1.7). Ozone Depletion
Processes. (ibid.)
18. Monastersky, R. (1995, October 14). Ozone hole reemerges
above Atlantic. Science News, 148, pp. 245-246



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